The Operations Tab

 On this page:  The Root Tag I Tags Inside the Root Tag I Additional Operations

The Operations Tab in the Ribbon becomes available when a tag, or an element within a tag is selected.  Depending on the item or content selected (the options are context sensitive – meaning that different options become available based the tag or content selected), the Operations Tab offers the CommonLook user a wide variety of options for tag creation, editing, and more.  In addition, these operations are available when right clicking on a particular tag or an element in a tag.

From the Root Tag

Screen shot of the Operations Tab options available when the Tag Root is selected.

The list of operations below are available when selecting the “Tags” tag, also known as the “Root Tag.”  Most of these operations are also available when other tags are selected.  The operations that are not available with other tags will be noted in the description.  In addition, selecting other tags will make available other operations and these will be discussed later.

  1. Create Document Tag – (only available when selecting the Root Tag) – Creates a Document tag at the top of the tree, immediately underneath the Tags tag, and moves all other tags inside the Document tag.  PDF/UA mandates that the Tag Tree be structured this way because it conveys that the content that follows is one logical document.
  2. Untag – Places the selected content in an artifact container.  (From the Root Tag, Untag will place all of the content in the entire document into Artifact containers on a per page basis.)
  3. Expand All – opens the selected tag(s) all the way to their furthest most “leaf” (text run level, etc.)
  4. Collapse All – closes the selected tag(s).
  5. Paste – From the Root Tag, the only option is to paste and the pasted tag is put at the bottom of the tag tree.  When clicking on any other type of tag, then Paste has two options as follows:
    1. Paste as sibling – pasted tag is inserted immediately after the selected tag
    2. Paste as child – pasted tag is inserted as the last child of the selected tag.
  6. Flatten Tags – Removes all Part, Section, Article, Div., etc. tags from the document to reduce unnecessary nesting.
  7. Artifact all images – Selects all of the images in the document and untags them.  This can be very useful if, for example, the document is full of tables.  Because all of the lines in a table are seen as images, this quickly and easily removes all of the lines so that they will not be read by screen readers (and so that they are not seen as <Figures> require Alt. Text.
  8. Remove Role maps – This option changes all custom tags to their standard tag mapped equivalent and then removes the custom tags.
  9. Create tag -> as child – Places an empty <P> tag in the tree as a child (subordinate) to the selected tag.
  10. Clean up (Full) – removes all empty tags, containers, etc. (including empty table cells) from the entire document.
  11. Clean up (Skip empty cells) – Removes all empty tags, containers, etc. except empty table cells.  (Helpful for removing empty tags in a document but keeping empty table cells for placeholders.)
  12. Highlight content – when this option is selected, and a tag is selected, the corresponding text, image, etc. in the document will be highlighted. (It is recommended to keep this option checked.

Operations for Tags Inside the Root Tag

Screen shot of the Operations Tab options when a tag other than the Tag Root is selected.

Other tags (that are not the Root Tag) also have the following operations available either in the Operations Tab or by right clicking on the tag itself:

  1. Untag – Places the selected content in an artifact container.
  2. Merge Tags – Advanced Version Only – This feature can be used to easily combine the content in multiple tags into one tag.
  3. Expand All – opens the selected tag(s) all the way to their furthest most “leaf” (text run level, etc.)
  4. Collapse All – closes the selected tag(s).
  5. Copy – May be used to copy empty structure.  This could be very helpful (when using the Standard Version) in building multiple similarly constructed tables.  One empty table can be created, copied, and then pasted into the tag tree.  (This is not a necessary method when using the Advanced Version of CommonLook Global Access with which a user may simply highlight the table in the Physical View and choose to generate the table from selection.)
  6. Cut – A tag may be selected in the Tag Tree, cut from its current position, and then pasted elsewhere in the reading order.
  7. Level Up – When a content is selected and then placed in a new tag, that tag is placed inside a pre-existing tag in the tree.  Level up is used to move the new tag out of the tag in which it was originally placed.
  8. Level Up Children of Tag – A quick and easy way to level up tags that are placed inside other tags.  Click on the “Parent” tag and then choose to level up the children.
  9. Tag similar – Advanced Version Only – Finds content with similar attributes (font, etc.) and tags it all similarly.  Ideal for quickly tagging all text with the similar appearance as the same Heading Level, for example.
  10. Paste as sibling – The pasted tag is inserted immediately after the selected tag.
  11. Paste as child – The pasted tag is inserted as the last child of the selected tag.
  12. Create tag as parent – Inserts a <P> tag into the tree as the parent of the selected tag.
  13. Create tag as sibling – Inserts a <P> tag into the tree at the same level as the selected tag.
  14. Create tag as child – Inserts a <P> tag into the tree as a child to (inside of) the selected tag.
  15.  Clean up (Full) – Removes all empty tags, containers, etc. (including empty table cells) from the entire document.
  16. Clean up (Skip empty cells) – Removes all empty tags, containers, etc. except empty table cells.  (Helpful for removing empty tags in a document but keeping empty table cells for placeholders.)
  17. Copy to Actual text – copies the text in the tag and places that text in the Actual text of that tag.  (This is helpful when text needs to be edited.)
  18. Copy to Alt text – Copies the text in the tag and places that text in the Alt text of that tag.  (This is helpful when text needs to be edited.)

Additional Operations

In addition to the operations listed available for the Tag Root and generic operations available for all tags, there are certain operations that are tag specific and are only available when a particular tag is selected.  Those operations are explained in this section.

Right clicking on a Text run

  1. Split Text – Allows users to split text runs, if needed.  Note:  Text runs will never need to be merged.  To split a text run, follow these steps:
    1. Select the text run in the Tag Tree,
    2. Right click on the text run and scroll to “Split Text,”
    3. Place the cursor where the split should occur,
    4. Press the Spacebar on the keyboard.
    5. Mark font as All Caps – Occasionally, when tags are added to a document, a word may be in mixed capital and lower case letters which could prevent the text from being read correctly by a screen reader.  Marking the font as all caps places the text in a <Span> tag and gives it alternative text in all capital letters so that it will be correctly read.

Right clicking on a Table Tag

  1. Linearize table – Tables that are used only for presentation (or layout purposes) and that do not have column and/or row headers are not considered Data Tables and, should not be marked as tables in the document structure.  In these cases, the table should be linearized and, by doing so, the content is placed in <P> tags.  There are two directions in which to linearize a table:
    1. Horizontally – Converts the cells to <P> tags across the table from top to bottom and left to right, row by row.  con
    2. Vertically – Advanced Version Only – Converts the cells to <P> tags column by column across the table from left to right.

Tip:  When choosing to linearize a table, first open the table editor to view the organization of the table and to decide whether to linearize horizontally or vertically.  After the table cells have been converted to <P> tags, select <P> tags and merge them as needed so that complete paragraphs of text are tagged all together.

  1. Insert row – Places a new <TR> inside the table
  2. Insert caption – Places an empty <Caption> tag inside the table before the first <TR>.  The caption text can then be selected in the Physical View and moved inside the <Caption> tag.
  3. Create linked headers (in the Table Editor, this is called “Auto Generate Linked Headers”) – Automatically creates linked headers for complex tables with multiple rows/columns of headers and/or cells that span multiple columns and/or rows.  Note:  When linked headers are automatically generated, the data cells are linked to their most immediate header cells (column and/or row) based on scope.  Then, if there are multiple rows/columns of headers, the “inner most header” will be linked to the next header moving out towards the edge of the table.   Depending on the complexity of the table, manual linking may be required.
  4. Show table editor – Opens the table remediating panel to further remediate the table including the option to manually link headers.  Tip:  A table will need to be manually linked if there are header cells that do not have any data cells in their column/row.
  5. Calculate bounding box – (option only available on Figure, Table, and Formula tags) – This is only required for PDF/UA – Figures, formulas and tables need to have their bounding boxes calculated to know where on the page the tag is positioned.  This operation accomplishes that task instantly.

Right clicking on a List

  1. Insert LI – Places a new <LI> tag inside the selected <List>.

Right clicking on an LI

  1. Insert List – Creates a new <L> tag and places it inside the <LBody> tag that is in the selected <LI>.  This is the correct way to structure a nested list.
  2. Insert Lbody – Places an empty <LBody> inside the <LI>.  Text for the list can then be selected and moved into the new <LBody>.
  3. Insert Lbl – Places an empty <Lbl> inside the <LI>.  Text for the list can then be selected and moved into the new <Lbl>.

Right clicking on a TOC (Table of Contents)

  1. Insert TOCI (Table of Content Item) – Places an empty <TOCI> tag at the bottom of the TOC tree.
  2. Split Text Run Leaders – Splits the text runs with the dots, underscores, etc. away from the text of the table of contents so that they can then be artifacted (and not read by a screen reader).
  3. Artifact leaders – This will automatically artifact the dots, underscores, etc. used in a Table of Contents

Right clicking on a TOCI

  1. Insert Reference – To contain the text of the Table of Contents and Links/link annotations.
  2. Insert Lbl – If there are section numbers in the Table of Contents, then those section numbers should be placed inside <Lbl> tags within the <TOCI>.
  3. Insert Nonstruct – This is a tag that tells screen readers that the contents of the tag should not be processed by assistive technology.  For example, all of the dot leaders should be placed in a <Nonstruct> tags.  Caution:  Most screen readers available today will actually read the dot leaders even if they are in <Nonstruct> tags.  For this reason, it may be best to simply place the dot leaders in Artifact Containers.
  4. Insert Paragraph – To contain the text of the Table of Contents when links are not used.
  5. Insert TOC – To create a nested Table of Contents.  The inserted <TOC> is placed inside the selected <TOCI>.

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